Local Galaxy Group & Neighborhood Program Chair:
5718 SE Harlow St
Milwaukie, OR 97222
Welcome to the Astronomical League's Local Galaxy Group and Neighborhood Observing Program.
The The Local Group is dominated by the big three spiral galaxies: Andromeda, Milky Way and M33. There are dwarf galaxies that orbit these major galaxies and exist in their shadow. Most of the dim lesser galaxies are not as visible as their brighter companions. Investigations from various radio telescopes across the world have discovered new companion galaxies around the Milky Way. The Local Group is gravitationally bound in a cloud surrounding the more massive galaxies. When we go deeper in magnitude or peer farther into the universe, the low surface brightness galaxies are more apparent. Professional astronomers continue to discover diffused clouds of stars associated with the Local Group. Associated galaxy complexes in the Local Group and Galactic Neighborhood are observable in modest-sized telescopes. Therefore, amateur astronomers have access to these striking and scientifically significant objects. Many of these brighter galaxies in the galactic neighborhood are in popular catalogs, such as Messier and Caldwell.
Most of the galaxies, clusters and clouds in this observing program are visually accessible with a 10 - 12/5" telescope, although there are individual objects in some of the groups that are beyond almost all amateur observers. Although this program accomodates CCD cameras and imagers, you don't need a CCD camera to complete this program. You will be able to see at least some galaxies in all of the groups.
There are several rewards for undertaking this program, no matter which method you choose. Subtle visual detection will reward you with the thrilling experience of viewing extremely distant objects at the very edge of visibility. In a CCD image, this same cluster may be a very beautiful cloud of galaxies and their dim clouds of globular clusters.
Learning to identify star fields is important even with a computer driven telescope. An observer must match the galaxies with their map coordinates. Many of the clusters in this program's catalog are dim and difficult objet to find, requiring the observer to star hop and use averted vision.
To obtain your certificate and award pin for this program, purchase the The Local Galaxy Group & Galactic Neighborhood Visual and CCD Observing Guide from the AL Bookstore specifically written to support this observing program.
This guide is for amateur astronomers wanting to observer and/or image Local Group galaxies and groups within approximately 12 million light years. This guide contains information about the requirements of this program as well as star maps to aid you in locating the required galaxies. This guide includes a brief overview of some of the most popular catalogs and atlases to assist you with their use and content. You will also find a variety of helpful observing hints, techniques, coordinates, data and technical information about the galaxies of the local group.
Rules and Regulations
There are two categories of search methods for this program, Manual and Device-Aided. To be considered for the Manual certificate, ALL of the objects must be observed manually. A space is provided on the Submittal Form to indicate your search method.
Manual infers that the observer hand-guides the telescope to the object. The observer uses his/her eye to see through the telescope to navigate to the object. Device-Aided infers the observer uses manual or digital setting circles, computer devices or other automatic aids in locating the object.
There are also two types of observing techniques, visual and imaging. Visual infers that the object is observed with the eye through the optics of the telescope. Imaging infers observations are obtained using astrophotography and/or CCD techniques.
To qualify for the AL's Local Galaxy Group & Neighborhood Certificate and pin, you need only be a member of the Astronomical League, either through an affiliated club or as a Member-at-Large. If you are not a member now, click here to view information on becoming a member.
From all the objects listed in the Local Group & Galactic Neighborhood Guide, you must observe at least 88. Record your observations on the form provided in the guide.
Write object descriptions that will include at a minimum:
- Time (specify local time zone or Universal Time)
- Site (name site and include approximate latitude, longitude and elevation)
- Seeing (describe on a scale; indicate which scale you are using)
- Transparency (give naked eye limiting magnitude or specify an alternate scale)
- Averted vision level if applicable (rate according to an averted vision scale)
- Instrument (include information on telescope, eyepieces, CCD cameras or other instrumentation)
- Description, in your own words, of the group and individual galaxies as appropriate (in many cases you will probably only see a very faint smudge).
Complete an index by putting the page number of your descriptions next to the groups and clusters on the list. The check-off and date columns are for your own use.
To receive your Local Galaxy Group & Neighborhood Certificate and Award Pin, complete the Submission form (found in the Guide), along with a copy of your observations, to:
5718 SE Harlow St
Milwaukie, OR 97222
Upon verification of your observations, your certificate and award pin will be sent to you or your society's Awards Co-ordinator, whomever you choose.